Detailed Marshall Chronology

Early Life: 1880 to 1901

  • December 31, 1880: Born in Uniontown, PA (40 miles SSE of Pittsburgh). Lived at his home, 1880 to 1901.
  • September 1897 to June 1901: Attended Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA. Civil Engineering major, 1899 to 1901; Kappa Alpha fraternity, 1901. First Captain (i.e. cadet commander), 1900 to 1901, Varsity football (left tackle) 1900. Marshall always ranked first in military discipline and about midway academically. He graduated 15th of 34 in the Class of '01. "What I learned at VMI was self-control, discipline, so that it was ground in. I learned also the problem of managing men." -- GCM
  • September 1901: Examined for Army commission from civilian life, Governors Island, NY.
  • September 1901 to January 1902: Commandant of Students, Danville Military Academy, Danville, Virginia.

Young Officer: 1902 to 1917

  • February 1902: Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant, Infantry; Married Elizabeth Coles of Lexington; reported to Fort Myer, VA; ordered to join his regiment (30th Infantry) in the Phillipines.
  • May 1902 to November 1903: Phillipine Islands.
  • December 1903 to August 1906: Fort Reno, Oklahoma Territory; served at various times as engineering officer, ordnance officer, post quartermaster, and post commissary officer.
  • August 1906 to August 1908: Army Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Promoted to 1st Lt.; Graduated first in his class.
  • August 1908 to January 1911: Instructor, Staff College, Fort Leavenworth. Worked with various National Guard units in the summer, 1907 to 1911.
  • January 1911 to June 1913: Assignments with 24th Infantry; Madison Barracks, NY; San Antonio, Texas; with the Organized Militia of Massachusetts; and with the 4th Infantry; Ft. Logan, Roots, Ark.; Ft. Snelling, Minn.; Ft. Crockett, Texas.
  • June 1913 to May 1916: Duty with the 13th Infantry; Ft. William McKinley, Manila, Philippines.
  • May 1916 to June 1917: Aide-de-Camp to Maj. Gen. J. Franklin Bell: California and New York.

Mid-Career: 1917 to 1938

  • July 1917: Promoted to Captain.
  • June 1917 to July 1918: Asst. Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), and then G-3, 1st Division, AEF, France. Won high praise for his planning of the Cantigny operation (May 1918).
  • July 1918 to April 1919: Asst. G-3, AEF HQ. Won high praise for his planning for the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives; Chief of Staff, VIII Army Corps.
  • May 1919 to July 1924: Aide-de-Camp to General John J. Pershing, Washington, D.C. Promoted to Major, July 1920; to Lt. Colonel, August 1923.
  • August 1924 to September 1927: Executive, and later Commanding Officer, 15th Infantry, Tientsin, China.
  • September 1927 to November 1927: Instructor, Army War College, Washington, D.C.; Mrs. Elizabeth Coles Marshall dies, September 15, 1927.
  • November 1927 to June 1932: Asst. Commandant, The Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia. Married Mrs. Katherine Tupper Brown, October, 1930.
  • July 1932 to June 1933: CO, 8th Infantry, Fort Screven, Georgia.
  • July 1933 to October 1933: CO, Fort Moultrie and District I, Civilian Conservation Corps. Promoted to Colonel, September, 1933.
  • November 1933 to August 1936: Senior Instructor, Illinois National Guard (33rd Division), Chicago, Illinois.
  • August 1936 to July 1938: CO, 5th Brigade, Vancouver Barracks, Washington (state). Promoted to Brigadier General, October, 1936.

Chief of Staff: 1939 to 1945

  • July 1938 to October 1938: Asst. Chief of Staff (head of the War Plans Division).
  • October 1938 to June 1939: Deputy Chief of Staff; Military Mission to Brazil (May to June 1939).
  • July 1939 to August 1939: Acting Chief of Staff.
  • September 1939 to November 1945: Chief of Staff
    • September 1939: Promoted to Major General.
    • August 1941: Attends Atlantic Charter Conference with FDR and Churchill, Newfoundland, Canada.
    • December 1941 to January 1942: Attends ARCADIA Conference with FDR and Churchill, Washington D.C.
    • April and July 1942: In Britain for discussions. Marshall opposed to landings in North Africa, preferring cross-channel attack.
    • January 1943: Attends Casablanca Conference with FDR and Churchill, Morocco.
    • November and December 1943 attends Teheran Conference with FDR, Churchill, Stalin; Iran.
    • June 1944: Visits Normandy beachhead and Great Britain.
    • December 1944: Promoted to "General of the Army" (5 stars).
    • February 1945: Attends Yalta Conference with FDR, Churchill, Stalin; USSR.
    • July 1945: attends Potsdam Conference with Truman, Atlee, Stalin; Germany.
    • November 1945: Retires as Chief of Staff.

Diplomat: 1946 to 1948

  • November 1945: Appointed head of the U.S. Mission to China with personal rank of Ambassador; President Truman's Special Representative.
  • December 1945 to December 1946: In China for meetings with Nationalist and Communist Chinese officials in an attempt to mediate the civil war there.
  • January 1947 to January 1949: Secretary of State.
    • February 1947: Retired from the Army.
    • March to April 1947: Attended Council of Foreign Ministers meetings, Moscow.
    • June 5, 1947: "Marshall Plan" speech at the Harvard University commencement.
    • August to September 1947: Attends Inter-American Conference, Rio de Janierio, Brazil.
    • November to December 1947: Attends Council of Foreign Ministers meetings, London.
    • March to April 1948: Attends Ninth International Congress of American States, Bogota.
    • September 1948: Attends United Nations General Assembly meetings, Paris.
    • January 1949: Resigns as Secretary of State

Last Assignments: 1949 to 1959

  • January 1949 to October 1959: Chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission. March 1949: Restored to active duty with the Army.
  • September 1949 to September 1950: Appointed head of the American National Red Cross.
  • September 1950 to September 1951: Secretary of Defense.
  • June 1952: Chairman, U.S. delegation to the coronation of Elizabeth II.
  • December 1953: Receives Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway.
  • October 16, 1959: Died, Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C.